Physiological Effects

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The actions of insulin on the global human metabolism level include:

  • Increase of cellular intake of certain substances, most prominently glucose in muscle and adipose tissue (about two-thirds of body cells) Buy saxenda online – buy victoza online – buy novolog fexpen online – buy trulicity online – buy ritalin 10mg in Australia.
  • Increase of DNA replication and protein synthesis via control of amino acid uptake
  • Modification of the activity of numerous enzymes.

The actions of insulin (indirect and direct) on cells include:

  • Stimulates the uptake of glucose – Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration by inducing intake of glucose by the cells. This is possible because Insulin causes the insertion of the GLUT4 transporter in the cell membranes of muscle and fat tissues which allows glucose to enter the cell.[65]
  • Increased fat synthesis – insulin forces fat cells to take in blood glucose, which is converted into triglycerides; decrease of insulin causes the reverse.
  • Increased esterification of fatty acids – forces adipose tissue to make neutral fats (i.e., triglycerides) from fatty acids; decrease of insulin causes the reverse.
  • Decreased lipolysis – forces reduction in conversion of fat cell lipid stores into blood fatty acids and glycerol; decrease of insulin causes the reverse. Buy saxenda online – buy victoza online – buy novolog fexpen online – buy trulicity online – buy ritalin 10mg in Australia.
  • Induce glycogen synthesis – When glucose levels are high, insulin induces the formation of glycogen by the activation of the hexokinase enzyme, which adds a phosphate group in glucose, thus resulting in a molecule that cannot exit the cell. At the same time, insulin inhibits the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, which removes the phosphate group. These two enzymes are key for the formation of glycogen. Also, insulin activates the enzymes phosphofructokinase and glycogen synthase which are responsible for glycogen synthesis

  • Decreased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis – decreases production of glucose from noncarbohydrate substrates, primarily in the liver (the vast majority of endogenous insulin arriving at the liver never leaves the liver); increase of insulin causes glucose production by the liver from assorted substrates.
  • Decreased proteolysis – decreasing the breakdown of protein
  • Decreased autophagy – decreased level of degradation of damaged organelles. Postprandial levels inhibit autophagy completely. Buy saxenda online – buy victoza online – buy novolog fexpen online – buy trulicity online – buy ritalin 10mg in Australia.
  • Increased amino acid uptake – forces cells to absorb circulating amino acids; decrease of insulin inhibits absorption.
  • Arterial muscle tone – forces arterial wall muscle to relax, increasing blood flow, especially in microarteries; decrease of insulin reduces flow by allowing these muscles to contract….Read More

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